# PYTHORCH: NN

import torch
import math

# Create Tensors to hold input and outputs.
x = torch.linspace(-math.pi, math.pi, 2000)
y = torch.sin(x)

# For this example, the output y is a linear function of (x, x^2, x^3), so
# we can consider it as a linear layer neural network. Let's prepare the
# tensor (x, x^2, x^3).
p = torch.tensor([1, 2, 3])
xx = x.unsqueeze(-1).pow(p)

# In the above code, x.unsqueeze(-1) has shape (2000, 1), and p has shape
# (3,), for this case, broadcasting semantics will apply to obtain a tensor
# of shape (2000, 3)

# Use the nn package to define our model as a sequence of layers. nn.Sequential
# is a Module which contains other Modules, and applies them in sequence to
# produce its output. The Linear Module computes output from input using a
# linear function, and holds internal Tensors for its weight and bias.
# The Flatten layer flatens the output of the linear layer to a 1D tensor,
# to match the shape of y.
model = torch.nn.Sequential(
torch.nn.Linear(3, 1),
torch.nn.Flatten(0, 1)
)

# The nn package also contains definitions of popular loss functions; in this
# case we will use Mean Squared Error (MSE) as our loss function.
loss_fn = torch.nn.MSELoss(reduction='sum')

learning_rate = 1e-6
for t in range(2000):

# Forward pass: compute predicted y by passing x to the model. Module objects
# override the __call__ operator so you can call them like functions. When
# doing so you pass a Tensor of input data to the Module and it produces
# a Tensor of output data.
y_pred = model(xx)

# Compute and print loss. We pass Tensors containing the predicted and true
# values of y, and the loss function returns a Tensor containing the
# loss.
loss = loss_fn(y_pred, y)
if t % 100 == 99:
print(t, loss.item())

# Zero the gradients before running the backward pass.

# Backward pass: compute gradient of the loss with respect to all the learnable
# parameters of the model. Internally, the parameters of each Module are stored
# in Tensors with requires_grad=True, so this call will compute gradients for
# all learnable parameters in the model.
loss.backward()

# Update the weights using gradient descent. Each parameter is a Tensor, so
# we can access its gradients like we did before.
for param in model.parameters():
# You can access the first layer of model like accessing the first item of a list
# For linear layer, its parameters are stored as weight and bias.